Sunday, January 20, 2019

Abrupt Human Extinction


Limiting global warming to an acceptable (and livable) temperature in the near-term (within 10 years) is impossible due to the transformative systemic change requirements needed to be integrated with sustainable development. In 2019, the current national pledges worldwide on mitigation and adaptation are not enough to make any significant difference in dealing with global warming and the escalating abrupt climate changes that are rapidly unfolding and ravishing our world today.

While transitions in energy efficiency, carbon intensity of fuels, electrification and land-use change are underway in various countries, the scale and pace of change to transform energy, land, urban and industrial systems world-wide are seriously falling short more and more each passing day. Very few countries, regions, cities, communities or businesses can truthfully claim that they are making any serious or significant inroads in dealing with the current abrupt climate changes that are rapidly (and exponentially) unfolding everywhere on our planet today.

The Bottom Line

Every nation in the world (without exception) would need to enhance their public, financial, institutional and innovation capabilities by at least an order of magnitude in order to scale-up their efforts to realistically deal with the dire and abrupt climate changes that are now unfolding. We the people of Earth, are beyond the point of no return. There is no global warming solution, only mitigation that may possibly slow down the inevitable extinction of our species.

The Change is Coming | Climate Change (3 Minute Video)


Saturday, January 19, 2019

Abrupt Climate Change


 


Abrupt climate change is real whether we want to accept it or not. The rise in global temperature over the last several decades is a matter of public record. The scientific consensus is that our current climate situation is dire. So before reading any further, know this: The following information may be detrimental to your mental well-being. Anxiety and depression are common reactions to many aspects and implications of what you are about to read, so please be advised. I ask that you be aware of your state of mind and any effects these words may have on you. If you become overwhelmed or begin to slide into a downward state of depression, please reach out to someone and ask for help.


Preface


Thousands of studies conducted by researchers around the world have documented changes in surface, atmospheric, and oceanic temperatures; melting glaciers; diminishing snow cover; shrinking sea ice; rising sea levels; ocean acidification; and increasing atmospheric water vapour. This "non technical" summary report is based on the collation of approximately 8,000 scientific reports and journal articles.


Introduction


We live in a time of great change and fossil fuels are the primary cause of this change. These combustible geologic deposits of organic materials have clearly helped advance our species but now we must pay the ultimate price for our excessive energy demands by facing the reality of abrupt climate change and the possibility of societal collapse in the near term.


What will happen when we are forced to move past the concept of sustainability and suddenly
enter an era of extreme energy transition combined with massive emission cuts, while at the same time, experiencing dire weather events unfolding right before our very eyes? What kind of imposed economic deprivation and rationing are we as a society going to be able to tolerate in the short-term as the dramatic and abrupt shift in weather patterns around the world overpowers our abilities to react in a timely fashion to protect our way of life? Imagine decades of planning in ecological economics only to find out that our national decision-makers in all first world nations have disregarded the energy and material dimensions of our economy with grave arrogance and a totally blind mindset of unlimited resources and perpetual growth. Today, no country on Earth is prepared for the escalating abrupt climate change turmoil that is unfolding as you read these words.

Abrupt climate change, massive biodiversity loss, and other extreme environmental hazards are clearly expanding inequality, unemployment, diminished economic growth and runaway national and international debt levels. Governments around the world are working with outdated models and methods to manage the dynamic devastation that is clearly ripping apart economies all over the planet. What happens when these extreme weather patterns surpass the available measures being taken today and all existing emergency plans and supplies unexpectedly become redundant or exhausted? There are no widely applicable economic models or reserves set aside to specifically deal with the current abrupt climate change situation we are now facing, anywhere. Time is now running out and all major governments have no immediate solution to transform the ways in which energy, transport, food and housing are produced, distributed or consumed in relation to sustaining a tolerable quality of life for the general public while reducing the burden that we have placed on the natural ecosystems we are dependant on for our very survival. The entire global energy infrastructure needed to be transformed years ago!


What about world food supplies? Affluent and developing countries alike are now facing extreme environmental challenges in food production. Let’s face the facts regarding abrupt climate change and our abilities to deal with the unfolding crisis’s around the world. There is no comprehensive plan or vision today to deal with the rapid system-level transformation required for global sustainability. Most countries can’t even manage their own national finances let alone take care of all of their citizens food requirements. The clear and present danger of abrupt climate change and its environmental challenges are now threatening the very livelihood of our species.


There is no socio/technical solution that “fits all” and dramatic reductions in emissions at the current high-levels of consumption are completely out of the question. The dismantling of our fossil-fuel infrastructure which has been providing a range of low-cost production and consumption opportunities for decades cannot be removed or replaced within a reasonable amount of time to make any significant difference in regards to the dire consequences of the rapidly escalating climate changes and weather patterns that are unfolding around the world today.


Abrupt climate change, population growth, increasing environmental toxicity, tipping points, feedback-loops, mitigation, geoengineering, alternative climate change solutions; the escalating global weather and climate patterns are now out of human control. So, brace yourself, we are in it and there is nothing we can do about it. Without immediate and complete de-carbonization of all economies around the world (which is impossible), the greenhouse effect (particularly in regards to the build-up of excessive carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere) will “end human civilization” as escalating droughts, increased floods and the increase in global temperature reduces quite measurably, the life and final breath of each and every human being on planet Earth.


The End Of Civilization


What one should expect as the end of civilization nears is that it will happen swiftly and it will be fearsome. Your mind will not be able to comprehend the reality of such a rapid decrease in human population or even the domino effect and collapse of all political, economic and social structures around the world within a few months. When the wave of destruction begins, it will not be a singular global event and it will not be neat, tidy or fully comprehensible by any of us. The first wave of crises will be followed by a continuous recurring buildup of unimaginable catastrophes that will quickly strip away our humanity, and soon after that, end all our lives.


How Does It Begin?


Everything will begin to fail quickly and the signs will be noticeable everywhere. Financial collapse will be the first sign, faith in “business as usual” will be lost and the future will no longer be assumed to resemble the past in any way. The second sign will be commercial collapse. Faith that the “markets shall provide” will be lost, money will be devalued and become scarce quickly, commodities will be hoarded, import and retail chains will break down and widespread shortages of survival necessities will become the norm within a few days after the main power grids start to fail and municipal water stops flowing through our taps. The third sign will be political collapse. Faith that the government will take care of us will be lost as official attempts to mitigate widespread loss of access to commercial sources of survival necessities fail to make any difference and the political establishment will lose total legitimacy and relevance. The fourth sign will be social collapse. Faith that our fellow (hu) man will take care of us will be lost, as local social institutions -- be they charities or other groups that rush in to fill the power vacuum, run out of resources or fail through internal conflict. And the fifth and final stage will be cultural collapse. Faith in the goodness of humanity will be lost, people will lose their capacity for kindness, consideration, affection, honesty, hospitality, compassion and charity. Families will disband and compete as individuals for scarce resources.


Let’s Face The Facts


We have crossed through the valley of global warming ignorance and now we are fanning the flames of abrupt climate change and total global annihilation. Filled with rage and murderous hostility, the beast deep within us all shall soon surface as we begin to face the reality of unendurable heat, climate plagues, non-breathable air, droughts, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, perpetual war, permanent economic collapse, and nothing to eat or drink but insects and recycled urine. Yes, this is the near-term future all of us will endure should we be strong enough to survive the first wave of inhumanity released within seventy-two hours of the power grids shutting down and the food chain being broken due to a multitude of eminent global climate cataclysms. Most of our species will perish within the first thirty days after these events begin and the last few percent of the population who survive will think and dream of nothing but death for the rest of their waking and forsaken lives.


Imagine a world of pure violence, a violence that was created by the production and use of coal, natural gas, oil and nuclear energy. We will not only become victims of this world of violence, we will also have murdered all species of fauna and flora and all the fragile ecosystems that most life on earth has depended upon since the beginning. Yes, it has truly begun and still most of us cannot see or accept what is happening as we deny to varying extents, the degree of damage we have inflicted upon ourselves and upon the living planet we depend upon for the very sustenance of life itself.


Our species is no longer able to see or weigh any future cataclysm against short-term comfort. But know this while you read on: there is no solution to the climate crisis we are now facing today. Nothing can be done to save us or our world. The diagnosis is absolute and final. The living planet and all life as we know it will soon perish as a vast terror created by our own greed and ignorance walks us straight into our own personal nightmare. Our tenacity and reliance on fossil fuels are powerless in the face of our gluttonous civilized addictions, consumption's, and global emissions that have blindly made all of us turn away from our problems of demand, growth, complexity, cost-benefit, industry, politics, generational-delay, denial and all the major unsolved problems that contribute to this monstrous and deadly behemoth known as abrupt climate change.


Again, the domino’s have already started to waver and a near-term collapse of society is definitely heading our way. The earth has reached a planetary threshold that has locked all of us into a rapidly escalating pathway toward an uninhabitable planet. We are now going in an irreversible direction that is beyond any critical decisions and actions that could positively influence the future of humanity. Our species is beyond any transformation based on a fundamental reorientation of human values, equity, behaviour, institutions, economies, or technologies. The door to life as we know it on planet earth will soon close. Have no misunderstanding, there isn’t a hope in hell that we can slow down climate change, or respond to it sufficiently enough to sustain any semblance of human civilization.


Every day new and disturbing scientific information on climate change is presented and every day a deeper more dire reality sets in about our future. The sad part about all of this scientific information and the state of our planet is the lack of discussion about the implications of a social collapse triggered by a major environmental catastrophe. It may be time for all of us to take a step back and consider the truth and consequences ahead of us, allow ourselves to grieve enough to overcome our emotions, and to focus on living in peace and contentment, in love and in service to each other, as we transition through these end times physically, psychologically and spiritually.


"The hard truth is that the climate predicament we are all in is fatally negative and without hope... there is definitely no solution." Just this statement alone is odd and hard to stomach for most people. Yes, there has been progress on environmental issues in past decades regarding adaption, pollution reduction, habitat preservation and waste management
but this progress does not matter to the overall analysis of our current predicament regarding abrupt climate change.

The simple evidence of global ambient temperature-rise or runaway climate change is indisputable. The warming of the Arctic has begun destabilizing winds in the higher atmosphere, specifically the jet stream and the northern polar vortex, leading to extreme movements of warmer air north into the Arctic and colder air into the south.


The warming Arctic has led to dramatic loss in sea ice which is critical to maintaining a manageable global temperature. Along with other melting of land ice, and the thermal expansion of water, all of these accelerating processes continue to contribute to a global increase in sea level rise around the world. The actual observed phenomena of rising temperatures and rising sea levels are greater than what any of the climate models over the past several decades have predicted for the current time-frame we are in today. This ice melt and sea rise is consistent with non-linear changes in our environment that have and continue to trigger uncontrollable impacts on human habitat and agriculture, with subsequent complex impacts on social, economic and political systems.


Already we see widespread impacts on storm, drought and flood "frequency and strength" due to increased volatility from more energy in the atmosphere. We are now witnessing major catastrophic impacts on agriculture. We are also seeing major catastrophic impacts on marine ecosystems. Compounding these threats, we are witnessing an exponential rise in the spread of mosquito and tick-borne viruses as temperatures become more conducive to these disease carrying insects.


At this point in time in human history all of us should be exploring how to live out our remaining time in a non-sustainable near-term extinction situation that will undoubtedly be disruptive, bringing on starvation, destruction, migration, disease, war and ultimately death. And when I say starvation, destruction, migration, disease, war and ultimately death, I mean to all of us alive today.


As a sense of calamity grows and the unpredictable and catastrophic nature of this collapse becomes more self-evident to the masses over the next few years, some of us may find comfort in reflecting on the total sense of loss of "everything" which may help create a powerful personal experience that will let us face our own mortality with dignity and respect. So, now that the end is truly near, are you prepared to know and accept the truth?


The Prognosis Is Bleak


If the 20th century was the age of exuberance, the 21st century is the age of consequences and the unpaid debt on those consequences is now coming due. The global consensus from economists to environmentalists is that the encroaching climate apocalypse will fully reveal itself between 2019 and 2023 through an Arctic “blue ocean event” (a complete absence of sea ice) that will trigger an endless series of nightmarish gut-wrenching runaway climate patterns that will progressively disrupt and destabilize weather patterns around the world.


What climate scientists are not telling us about the true “climate change” state the world is in is that all of their modeling and scientific prowess does not include the abrupt climate changes that are actually occurring today. For example: Arctic sea ice is disappearing “seventy years” ahead of schedule, the Gulf Stream is shutting down more than a “hundred years” ahead of schedule, and the critical Antarctic ice loss is a “hundred years” ahead of schedule. These abrupt changes alone carry significant side effects: inundation of enough coastal resources to create unrecoverable global economic collapse, undersea methane clathrate disintegration, vastly increased warming because of loss of albedo, and radically changing weather patterns in the northeastern U.S. and northern Europe. These are not hypothetical impacts, they are real impacts. To make things worse, all of these abrupt changes happening today are “not” even included as part of the science that goes into policy making for any of the first world leading nations.


Imagine, these abrupt changes began with warming much less than what we are experiencing today. The first “warning sign” that West Antarctica was collapsing was in 2005. The first “warning sign” that the Gulf Stream was shutting down started in 2011. And the first “warning sign” that the Arctic sea ice was collapsing was in 2008. All of these dangerous climate change warning signs began at only 0.5°C (or less) above the global industrial baseline average temperature set at the beginning of the industrial revolution in the 1750’s.


Today we are at “double” the 2005 temperature that started these massive shifts in our climate and it is expected that soon (less than five years) we will have "tripled" the 2005 “warning sign” temperature of 0.5°C. All of the near-term (less than five years) temperature projections do not include any of the known climate feedback loops or the climate's internal variability which significantly increases the heating of the planet. A simplified calculation which includes known climate feedback loops and the climate's internal variability today would at a minimum, "double" the near-term global temperature projections and forecasts. In other words, 3.0°C or six times the 2005 "warning sign" temperature in less than five years. As our world warms, the Earth system will quickly move toward climate states beyond anything ever experienced by our species and adaptation will be outside the range of adaptive capacity for most human beings. Our living, breathing, global ocean will quickly begin to suffocate and the oxygen-depleted “dead zones” will expand throughout all the oceans of the world. This rapid 3°C rise in global temperature and deoxygenation of our oceans will be fatal to almost all marine life, ecosystems, vertebrae and mammals.




According to models adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), if atmospheric CO2-equivalent rises to 445-90 ppm, then the global average temperature is likely to rise to 2.4° Celsius above the pre-industrial level (these projections do not include any of the known climate feedback loops or any of the climate's internal variability). With an increase of only 2 degrees, there will be widespread crop failures, drought, desertification, and flooding throughout Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, and Australia. Of plant and animal species, 15-40 percent are likely to go extinct. But more importantly, a 2-degree warming will constitute a “dangerous anthropogenic interference” as it will initiate a series of climate feedback's that will take the earth beyond a set of “tipping points”. Beyond these tipping points, global warming will become a self-sustaining process out of human control, leading to massive catastrophes that will wipe out most species on earth, including the human species.


According to Dr. James Hansen, a leading world authority on climate change, 2.7° Celsius would be the most realistic minimal temperature increase to project as part of any future planning. Unfortunately, it is highly probable that because of our ongoing denial and delay in addressing escalating global warming, atmospheric carbon parts per million will most likely continue to rapidly rise beyond the carbon 450-550 ppm total, which will translate to a 3° to 4° Celsius increase (5.4° to 7.2°+ Fahrenheit) up to as much as a 6° Celsius (10.8° Fahrenheit) increase in average global temperature.


Note:

The max. "carrying capacity" of a 4°C world is less than one billion people.


Hansen’s projections for “ending human civilization as we know it” are not the same as mass human extinction as we approach the 5° or 6° Celsius (9° to 10.8° Fahrenheit) temperature levels. In Hansen’s 6° Celsius rise coming from eventually crossing the carbon 450 ppm mark, what would be considered normal, comfortable, or predictable daily life in developed nations will be severely impaired. In undeveloped nations, there will be a level of chaos and breakdown that will rapidly render most of these nations politically and economically unsustainable. As it is already occurring, the chaos of existing less-developed nations destabilized by factors such as war and the global warming emergency will affect the more developed and stable nations far beyond just the current massive migrations of those escaping the suffering.








It’s clear that weather stations on land show average air temperatures are rising, and as a result, the frequency and severity of droughts and heat waves are increasing. Intense droughts can lead to destructive wildfires, failed crops, and low water supplies, many of which are now deeply affecting many parts of the world.

Roughly 70 percent of the world is covered by oceans, so you can understand how hotter air over them could make a vast difference in the climate system. Oceans evaporate more water as the air right near the surface gets warmer. The result? More floods, more hurricanes, and more extreme precipitation events.

Sea levels have been rising for the past century. And the pace is only increasing in recent years as glaciers melt faster and water temperatures increase, causing oceans to expand. Eight of the 10 largest cities in the world are near a coast. Consider how billions of people are at risk as sea levels rise, storms intensify, and more extreme flooding occurs. Additionally, marine life is threatened as salt water intrudes into fresh water aquifers, many of which support human communities and natural ecosystems.

The ocean stores and releases heat over long periods of time. This is a natural and important part of stabilizing the climate system. Natural climate patterns (think, El Niño) occur regularly because of warmer ocean waters and influence areas like regional climates and marine life. But it's when short-term, natural climate patterns like El Niño occur at the same time as oceans are becoming warmer and warmer that we know that larger changes are happening. The increased heat content leads to higher sea levels, melting glaciers, and stress to marine ecosystems.

Measuring instruments show that water temperatures at the ocean's surface are going up. To some extent, this is a normal pattern: the ocean surface warms as it absorbs sunlight. The ocean then releases some of its heat into the atmosphere, creating wind and rain clouds. However, as the ocean’s surface temperature continues to increase, more and more heat is released into the atmosphere. This additional heat is leading to stronger and more frequent storms like tropical cyclones and hurricanes.


Satellites show areas covered by snow in the Northern Hemisphere are quickly becoming smaller. Snow is important as it helps control how much of the sun’s energy Earth absorbs. Light-coloured snow and ice reflect this energy back into space, helping keep the planet cool. However, as the snow and ice melts, it’s replaced by dark land and ocean, both of which absorb energy. The amount of snow and ice loss in the last 30 years is much higher than many scientists predicted, which means the Earth is absorbing more solar energy than had been projected.


The lowest layer of the atmosphere, called the troposphere, is the layer we’re most familiar with – it’s where we live and where our weather occurs. Satellite measurements show that this lowest layer of the atmosphere is warming as greenhouse gases build up and trap heat that radiates from the Earth’s surface. Scientists tell us that human activity, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, caused this increase in atmospheric temperatures. In fact, carbon dioxide levels have increased over 40 percent since the Industrial Revolution began in 1750.


Conclusion

The escalating abrupt weather patterns around the world are changing faster than expected and the expert scientific "linear" global weather projections we have been depending on for decades are flawed. The climate reality we are now facing is actually happening at an "exponential" rate. Based on current projections of near-term planetary temperature rise and the rapid extinction of a myriad of species that support human existence, we as a species are about to hit the windshield in terms of survival on Earth. Not because we can’t adapt as a species to climate changes, but because the land organisms and ocean plankton that we depend on for food and habitat can’t adjust quickly enough to the changes in the climate. Without these minute and abundant life forms, production of food will quickly cease as rapid loss of global habitat will diminish to a point where all life on Earth will come to an end, including human life.

Today, there are no known fixes, technological or biological, to this situation. The complex interplay of habitat loss, species extinction, tribal conflict, escalating wars, famine, political uncertainty and the clear and present danger of economic collapse have overwhelmed our abilities as a species to react in a timely fashion to provide a realistic solution to this life-ending global runaway abrupt climate change problem all of us now face on Planet Earth.

Note:

No one will be immune from the physical or mental effects of climate change. Some of the key impacts of climate change on mental health can include: trauma, shock, stress, anxiety, depression, complicated grief, severe reactions, strains on social relationships, substance abuse, mental health emergencies, sense of loss, hopelessness, fatalism, resignation, loss of autonomy and sense of control, loss of personal and occupational identity. Although climate change is real and can be frightening, remaining in a state of heightened distress is not helpful for you or for anyone else. Be optimistic about the future. Remind yourself there is a lot you can personally do. Change your own behaviour. Become more informed about working with others in your community to make things safer for everyone. Do things in easy stages. Identify things that might get in the way of doing things differently. Look after yourself. Invite others to change. Talk with others about local environmental problems. Present clear but not overwhelming information. Talk about changes that you are making in your own life. Share your difficulties and rewards. Be assertive, not aggressive. Congratulate people for being environmentally concerned. Be an example on how you want others to act and respond to the environment.

"Stay engaged, gather with your community, and act."

Facts

The 20 warmest years on record have all occurred in the past 22 years.

The next few years (now until the end of 2022) are projected to be warmer.


Links

Limits To Growth (1972 Paper)

Other Video Links

Pale Blue Dot (4 Minutes)


Inside The Experiment (6 Minutes)

Miscellaneous Links


A Climate Chronology

Early Climate Change Consensus (1983)

Exxon Confirmed Global Warming Consensus (1982)


Exxon Primer On C02 Emissions (1982)


Greenland Ice Cores: Frozen In Time (1998)



Abrupt Climate Change In An Oscillating World

Sea Level Rise And The U.S. Military’s Mission (2018)

Landscape Of The Anthropocene

Climageddon Scenario

A Map for Navigating Climate Tragedy

The Pentagon And Climate Change

Trajectories Of The Earth System In The Anthropocene

Climate Science Special Report

Extreme Temperatures Around The World

What Lies Beneath


World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity

Human And Nature Dynamics

Extinction Risk From Climate Change

Co-Extinctions Annihilate Planetary Life



The Race of Our Lives

Snow, Water, Ice And Permafrost In The Arctic

Arctic Amplification

7 Reasons Why Arctic Sea Ice Matters

Greenhouse Gas Removal

Emissions Gap Report (2018)

Greenland Ice Sheet Melting

The Hottest La Niña Year Ever Recorded (2018)

Bank for International Settlements (2018)

Arks of the Apocalypse

Runaway climate change is unavoidable

Climate breaks multiple records in 2016, with global impacts

Release of Arctic Methane "May Be Apocalyptic," Study Warns

Methane Hydrate: Killer cause of Earth's greatest mass extinction

Paris 1.5-2°C target far from safe, say world-leading scientists

'Big bang' and 'pillar of fire' as latest of two new craters forms this week in the Arctic

India’s rising temperatures are already deadly, study shows

Great Barrier Reef at 'terminal stage': scientists despair at latest coral bleaching data


Carbon dioxide toxicity and climate change: a major misunderstood risk for human health (2018)

America’s Ecological Precipice


Tropical Tropospheric Trend Discrepancies (2013)


Potential cause of the “Methane Catastrophe”


Global Extinction within one Human Lifetime

Mysterious Siberian Crater Attributed To Methane

Alaska Tundra Source of Early-Winter Carbon Emissions

Scientists Forecast Dramatic Temperature Increase

Surface Manifestations of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground

Seven Facts You Need To Know About The Arctic Methane Timebomb

Russian Scientists Find 7,000 Siberian Hills Possibly Filled With Explosive Gas

The Siberian Crater Saga Is More Widespread — and Scarier — Than Anyone Thought

Current rates mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation of East Siberian Arctic Shelf

Escape of Methane Gas From the Seabed Along the West Spitsbergen Continental Margin

Climate change may be escalating so fast it could be 'game over', scientists warn

Geologic Methane Seeps Along Boundaries of Arctic Permafrost Thaw and Melting Glaciers

Scientists May Have Cracked the Giant Siberian Crater Mystery And the News Isn’t Good

Humans Might Not Survive Climate Change, but These Creatures Probably Will

Possible Role of Wetlands, Permafrost, and Methane Hydrates in the Methane Cycle Under Future

Methane transport from the active layer to lakes in the Arctic using Toolik Lake, Alaska, as a case study

Radiative forcing of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide: A significant revision of the methane radiative forcing

Beyond bifurcation: using complex models to understand and predict abrupt climate change

Catalogue of abrupt shifts in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate models

Climate change and migration in the Pacific: options for Tuvalu and the Marshall Islands

Climigration? Population and climate change in Arctic Alaska

What surprises lurk within the climate system?

Tipping elements and climate–economic shocks: Pathways toward integrated assessment

Climate change prediction: Erring on the side of least drama?

The World Nuclear Industry Status Report (HTML) (2016)

The Carbon Majors Database

Massive craters formed by methane blow-outs from the Arctic sea floor

Add Nitrous Oxide to the List of Permafrost Melt Concerns

Waves Rippled Through Greenland’s Ice. That’s Ominous

Russian scientists deny climate model of IPCC

Warnings of new Arctic explosions at some 700-plus sites in Yamal due to thawing permafrost

Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?

In Switzerland, a giant new machine is sucking carbon directly from the air

Venting Our (Carbon Dioxide) Problems into Space

CO2 Recycling

Powered enzyme reduces carbon dioxide

Climate Progress Dashboard forecasts global warming of more than 4°C

Four degree interactive map

Global projections of river flood risk in a warmer world

Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided

Less than 2°C warming by 2100 unlikely

The Strange Future Hurricane Harvey Portends

Can Human Beings Survive The Impending Climate Crisis?

A Down-to-Earth Solution to Global Warming

Global Priorities Project (2017)

Well Under 2 Degrees Celsius

Avoiding Dangerous to Catastrophic Climate Changes

Global Catastrophic Risks (2017)

Aquatic refuges for surviving a global catastrophe

What These Climate Scientists Said About Earth's Future

The Risk Of Climate Ruin

Three years to safeguard our climate

Assessing Transformation Pathways

Ditch The 2C Solution



World Scientists' Warning To Humanity


Explaining Extreme Events from a Climate Perspective


100% Renewable Companies - Too Little Too Late?


Warning To Humanity


Arctic News


The Rise of China(Part 1)


The Rise of China(Part 2)